thin section scans

The images presented here are overlaid paired scans of my teaching collection of “exotic” rock thin sections. The left image is the sample in unpolarized light; the right image is the same view under crossed polars. The image pair features a central slider that can be moved left or right to compare specific features under either light condition. The featured samples illustrate some of the mineralogical & compositional diversity of a variety of unusual & uncommon igneous, metamorphic, and metasomatic rocks from around the world. The minerals included in my three-volume series of optical mineralogy e-books were photographed from among the first 100 or so of these particular thin sections. Indeed, with a bit of searching, the specific photographed grains can be located in these wider-field scans, providing an even fuller petrographic context to the e-book photos. A detailed figure caption follows the images and presently includes:

(1) the thin section number. All but one of the thin sections are FKM series; in the cases where source material for the billets was sampled from the research collections, or was donated or gifted to me by colleagues, that information is noted.

(2) the sample locality. For most samples, I’ve added a link to the location description on, which provides useful additional information on associated minerals, geologic environment, map coordinates, and locality & specimen photos.  A few samples are from unknown or presumed localities, and are so noted.

(3) a descriptive rock name, followed in most cases by some additional petrogenetic interpretations (to be improved over time as I learn more about each sample).

(4) a summary of major minerals present, and any distinctive special textural relationships, such as symplectites, veins or alteration. In some cases, I’ve added some of my own analytical data to highlight notable compositional features of specific minerals, or alternatively, to describe the distribution of certain rare elements among multiple minerals within an unusual bulk composition. Check out the microprobe analytical routines page to see the optimized set of major, minor and trace elements sought for different mineral groups. For certain samples, this section also includes notes about how some of the minerals were normalized (including assumptions or estimates); notes on the crystal chemistry, P-T-X conditions of formation, and/or nomenclature (with external links, when available); and also any relationship to other samples in this collection (with internal links).

In the future, I hope to incorporate additional color, relief, birefringence, and other descriptive physical & optical details to make it easier for viewers to pick out specific minerals in the images. I’m also in the process of adding detailed tabulated mineral composition data for the thin sections I’ve been able to take to the microprobe (at this point, roughly half of them). Compiling these tables will be slow going, so check back periodically to follow my progress.

The originals of these scans were captured as TIFF files with a CanoScan 9000f Mark II scanner at 2400 dpi using positive color film mode, with subsequent post-processing in Apple Preview to improve white balance, exposure, sharpness, and resizing to 3300 x 2100 pixels (for an individual file size of ~27 MB… yes, these are a bit unwieldily large!) Each thin section was first scanned in unpolarized light and then again between two sheets of crossed polaroid film aligned parallel to the thin section edges. Originally, “plane polarized” scanning in separate E-W & N-S orientations was attempted to highlight pleochroic variation, but this ultimately had to be abandoned due to significant (and very unsightly!) stray polarization effects. For the most effective outcome of the “before/after” photo plugin I’ve utilized here to produce the slider feature, I tried my best to ensure that the photo pair are similarly framed (and hence that they overlap as well as possible).

To produce manageable file sizes appropriate for web display, the original TIFF files were converted to JPG files (at the “highest compression” setting, reducing each to ~450 kB), and then set to display at 800 x 509 pixels. Despite the high compression, the images appear almost indistinguishable from the original TIFF images, at least when viewed at typical laptop (Retina display) or mobile device screen sizes; nonetheless, each JPG file is less than 2% of its former TIFF size. I’m certainly no expert at image processing for web display, and indeed what you’re now seeing is my second attempt (my first attempt resulted in noticeably “fuzzy” images). I’m open to suggestions about better ways to display high quality images at manageable sizes, but I have to say that I’m pretty happy with the sharpness of this second batch of photos (and to really appreciate the degree of image detail, ctrl-click [Mac] or right-click [PC] on an image to open it in a new window). For scale, each image captures a central area of approximately 35 x 22 mm of the thin section; consequently, 1 pixel represents about 44 μm of the sample.

All of the FKM series thin sections are uncovered and polished, so quite a number have spent time in the microprobe.  For those lucky samples, I typically have analytical data on essentially the entire assemblage, and will try to incorporate more of those results here as I continue to update this page. Most of the samples in the FKM series were purchased from several “rare-mineral” dealers at the various Tucson Gem & Mineral Show venues between 2010 and 2017 (note: identifications not verified by analytical data are based on dealers’ labels, and in several cases, dealers’ labels have been found to be disappointingly incorrect).  I try to add roughly 30-60 new thin sections every year, so look for this collection to grow (thin sections of samples FKM-209 through FKM-253 are currently being prepared… look for them here in late May 2017… UPDATE: they’ve arrived, been scanned, and are now online… woo hoo!)

Unlike some other collections of thin section images on the web, there are few rock types represented here that would likely be covered in an “intro to petrology” course. Nonetheless, although many of the featured rocks and their constituent minerals are quite rare and unusual (and so perhaps may seem to be of little particular interest to most viewers), a number of these samples are from classic localities, a few are great examples of diagnostic optical properties such as marked pleochroism or striking anomalous birefringence, and all illustrate an interesting texture, mineral assemblage, or bulk composition. Indeed, for a few of these rocks, only a limited number of geologists have ever even seen them in thin section; therefore, I’m very happy to be able to share the images of these really “cool” out-of-the-ordinary rocks with the global online community.

Note: I currently have over 250 samples to feature here, so it’ll probably take some time to fill in all of the caption information accompanying each image (hence the “test” and “add photo(s)” placeholders currently under some samples); check back periodically to follow my progress.  And finally, please remember, these images are copyrighted. Enjoy them here for their academic and aesthetic value, but please don’t copy or use them offsite without permission.  If you do have a particular educational or research interest in some of the images, I’d be happy to give permission for their limited (& not-for-profit) use… just ask, at fkm [at] rockptx [dot] com.

So, browse the pages below, or use the index search bar to find specific samples of interest based on mineralogy or other search criteria. Note: if you have a slow internet connection, it might take a minute or two to load these image-intensive pages.

samples FKM-1 to FKM-25

samples FKM-26 to FKM-50

samples FKM-51 to FKM-75

samples FKM-76 to FKM-100

samples FKM-101 to FKM-125

samples FKM-126 to FKM-150

samples FKM-151 to FKM-175

samples FKM-176 to FKM-200

samples FKM-201 to FKM-225

samples FKM-226 to FKM-250

samples FKM-251 to FKM-275

index of scanned thin sections

This table is a searchable summary of all of the samples currently included in this collection. Note that the “anticipated major minerals” column started as largely based off of dealers’ labels and/or cursory hand sample identification. As I’ve had the opportunity to do more detailed petrography and microprobe work on these samples, I’ve gone back and amended entries to better reflect the actual minerals present, rather than simply the anticipated ones. In cases where there is a discrepancy, I’ve opted to retain the original dealer identifications, but also adding a note updating the mineral ID (for example, “nybøite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually glaucophane] denoted for sample FKM-3 indicates that the specimen was originally labeled as containing nybøite, but only the similar-appearing blue amphibole glaucophane was observed).

Amending these entries (not only the “anticipated minerals” column, but also the “general environment” and “notable enrichment” columns) is an ongoing process, so look for this table to become more accurate and more detailed with time (and thus ideally more useful too).

Of course, the strength of this table is the ability to search for and isolate samples based on user-selected criteria. For samples with detailed petrographic or analytical data, I’ve formatted the mineral entries to be particularly search-friendly, by including common mineral group and series names, informal names of compositional varieties, as well as an indication of whether multiple names represent discrete phases or simply compositional gradation. The formats are:

—plain font without quotation marks: recognized species (e.g. forsterite).

—plain font with quotation marks: non-end-member varietal names (e.g. “oligoclase”), potentially new species that are not yet recognized (e.g. “SrSr-ruizite”… I’ve tried to follow logical nomenclature conventions in these cases and use established root-names with appropriate chemical modifiers), or names that are in the process of being replaced but are still in common usage (e.g. “sodic-gedrite”).

italics font: commonly used mineral family or series names (e.g. amphibole, biotite, plagioclase).

—parentheses and brackets, except when used for Levinson suffixes, identify the specific minerals of a family or series that are present, or alternatively, note the absence or mis-identification of a species that was anticipated from the dealer label, or note some other important feature.

—a back-slash between minerals denotes a composition which straddles a nomenclature boundary, or a compositional gradation between two or more end-members. For example, the entry:


can either represent an essentially homogeneous composition on the Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) = 0.9 nomenclature boundary that delineates tremolite from actinolite, or alternatively, represent a zoned amphibole grading from distinctly tremolite regions to distinctly actinolite regions. Check the more detailed figure caption accompanying the particular sample of interest to determine which of these two very different situations is applicable.

—a comma between minerals denotes distinct phases within a sample. For example, the entry:

muscovite, quartz

means that both minerals are present as individual species.

In the case where two minerals seem like they should be part of a compositional gradation but are separated by a comma rather than a back-slash, for example:

amphibole [magnesio-hornblende, actinolite])

also denotes distinct phases and indicates the minerals formed separately rather than as a single zoned crystal (e.g. igneous magnesio-hornblende rimmed by later actinolite alteration).

Multiple formats may be used in combination to convey richer detail. For example:

feldspar (K-spar [Ba-rich orthoclase, microcline], plagioclase [“oligoclase”/”andesine”, albite])

indicates that microcline and a Ba-rich orthoclase are both present as distinct K-spar phases. These potassium feldspars occur with a compositionally zoned plagioclase gradational between oligoclase and andesine (or, a homogeneous Ab70An30 plagioclase), as well as an additional separate albite phase.

The preceding feldspar example also demonstrates that by using this format, a user can expand or narrow a search by selecting either a general search term or a more specific one (for example, searching for all samples containing any feldspar, any plagioclase, or a specific plagioclase composition range). Cool, huh?

Finally, note that the listed order for a sample is not based on abundance, but rather roughly follows Dana’s classification.

sample number locality anticipated major minerals general environment notable enriched elements
FKM-1 Merelani, Tanzania graphite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), garnet (V-rich grossular), titanite, zoisite, pyroxene (diopside), quartz granulite facies organic-rich calc-silicate V, Sr
FKM-2 Prabornaz mine, St. Marcel, Italy rutile, braunite, Sb-rich titanite, epidote group (Sr-rich piemontite), quartz, feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase]) meta manganiferous sediment Mn, Sb, Sr
FKM-3 Palos Hill, Syros, Greece monazite-(Ce), titanite, epidote group (epidote/REE-rich epidote), pyroxene (jadeite/omphacite/aegirine-augite), amphibole (nybøite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually glaucophane]), mica (muscovite/paragonite) UHP blueschist/eclogite transitional
FKM-4 Kiona Bay, Tinos, Greece spinel group (magnetite), apatite (fluorapatite), garnet (almandine), titanite, epidote group (epidote), pyroxene (omphacite), amphibole (ferrowinchite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually winchite], glaucophane, actinolite), chlorite (clinochlore) blueschist/greenschist transitional
FKM-5 Cape Marmari, Syros, Greece calcite, titanite, lawsonite (listed on dealer label but not observed; completely pseudomorphed by the low grade minerals), pumpellyite-(Al), amphibole (actinolite), mica (muscovite), chlorite (clinochlore) blueschist/greenschist/prehnite-pumpellyite transitional Cr
FKM-6 Ottré, Liege, Belgium hematite, apatite (fluorapatite), monazite-(Ce), ottrélite (listed on dealer label but not observed; actually Mn-rich chloritoid), mica (muscovite), chlorite (clinochlore) low-mod grade metapelite Mn
FKM-7 Brenk, Eifel, Germany perovskite, apatite (fluorapatite), rinkite, pyroxene (diopside, aegirine-augite), feldspar (K-spar [sanidine]), sodalite group (nosean), nepheline, Na-rich leucite, zeolite (“K-rich natrolite?”, analcime) nosean phonolite K, S, Cl
FKM-8 Sterling Hill, NJ, USA brucite?, calcite, dolomite, strontianite, humite group (norbergite, chondrodite), amphibole (fluoro-pargasite, tremolite), mica (biotite [Ba-rich phlogopite]), serpentine? high grade marble F
FKM-9 Bellerberg, Eifel, Germany calcite, garnet (Fe-Ti-rich grossular), gehlenite (listed on dealer label but not observed) high T metamorphosed calcareous ejecta
FKM-10 Crestmore quarry, CA, USA monticellite, calcite, possibly hydroxylellestadite (apatite group) high grade metasomatized marble (“skarn”)
FKM-11 Fiskenaes, Greenland sapphirine, amphibole (pargasite, “sodic-gedrite” or alternatively roughly along {gedrite}-{“rootname 1”} join), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (clinochlore) UHT granulite metasomatized metapelite? Cr
FKM-12 Nine Mile mine, Broken Hill, NSW, Australia ilmenite, spinel group (gahnite), quartz, “sheet silicate” high grade Zn-rich siliceous meta-exhalite? Zn
FKM-13 Merelani, Tanzania graphite, “Fe-oxide”, “Mn-oxide”, fluorite, calcite, garnet (grossular), zoisite, pyroxene (diopside), “Ca-stilpnomelane”, quartz granulite facies organic-rich calc-silicate V, Sr
FKM-14 Langesundfjord, Norway “Nb-oxide?”, apatite (fluorapatite, “calciobritholite-(Ce)”), astrophyllite group (astrophyllite/niobophyllite), pyroxene (aegirine), feldspar (K-spar [microcline], plagioclase [albite]), zeolite (Ca-rich natrolite?) alkali feldspar syenite Nb, REE
FKM-15 Laytonville quarry, Mendocino Co, CA, USA garnet (spessartine), stilpnomelane, zussmanite (listed on dealer label but not observed), quartz blueschist facies Fe-Mn metaquartzite Mn, Fe
FKM-16 Tsitondroina, Madagascar chrysoberyl, amphibole (taramite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually F-rich pargasite]), anorthite amphibole-anorthite vein (“amphibolite”-like) Be
FKM-17 Sengischorr Mt., Lovozero massif, Russia lamprophyllite, aegirine, titanite, microcline, eudialyte nepheline syenite Ba, Zr, Cl, REE
FKM-18 Pargas, Finland fluorite, calcite, amphibole (pargasite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually pyroxene (diopside)]), scapolite (meionite) high grade marble F
FKM-19 Gjerdingen, Norway kupletskite, elpidite, alkali feldspar (perthite), aegirine, riebeckite “ekerite” (soda granite) Zr, Ti, Nb, F, Mn
FKM-19b Gjerdingen, Norway kupletskite, elpidite, alkali feldspar (perthite), aegirine, riebeckite “ekerite” (soda granite) Zr, Ti, Nb, F, Mn
FKM-20 Sussex Co., NJ, USA franklinite, zincite, willemite, calcite, gageite high grade Zn-bearing marble Zn, Mn
FKM-21 Greenwood mine, Orange Co., NY, USA ilmenite, spinel group (magnetite), monazite-(Ce), apatite (fluorapatite), pyroxene (diopside/augite), amphibole (fluoro-potassichastingsite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually potassic-magnesio-hastingsite]), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase, perthite orthoclase host], plagioclase [“andesine”, perthite “oligoclase” lamellae]), quartz Fe mine silicate alteration assemblage F, Cl, K
FKM-22 Cascade Canyon, San Gabriel Mtns., CA, USA corundum desilicified granite?
FKM-23 Anantagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India rutile, ilmenite, spinel group (spinel, hercynite), monazite-(Ce), garnet (almandine/pyrope), sillimanite, cordierite, pyroxene (“hypersthene”), sapphirine, mica (biotite [phlogopite]), quartz, feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase], plagioclase [“andesine”]) UHT granulite metapelite Zn, Cr
FKM-24 Fotadrevo area, Tuléar province, Madagascar corundum (in hand sample but not in thin section), amphibole (tschermakite), chlorite (clinochlore), feldspar (plagioclase [anorthite]) granulite meta-amphibolite Cr
FKM-25 Sar-e-Sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan pyrite, calcite, apatite (carbonate-hydroxylapatite), olivine (forsterite), pyroxene (diopside), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), nepheline, sodalite group (lazurite) meta-evaporite with likely autologous metasomatism S, Cl
FKM-26 Merelani, Tanzania graphite, sulvanite, calcite, garnet (“V-rich fluor-hydrogrossular”?), V-rich titanite, epidote group (mukhinite), pyroxene (diopside), amphibole (V-rich tremolite/V-rich magnesio-hornblende), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (V-rich clinochlore) granulite facies organic-rich calc-silicate V
FKM-27 Kipawa complex, Villedieu township, Québec, Canada fluorite, aluminocerite-(Ce), eudialyte group (eudialyte), pyroxene (aegirine-augite), amphibole (roughly along {K-bearing fluoro-magnesio-arfvedsonite}-{K-bearing fluoro-richterite} join), feldspar (K-spar [microcline], plagioclase [albite]) eudialyte syenite (metamorphosed) REE, F, Zr, K
FKM-28 Betroka, Madagascar sapphirine, diopside, phlogopite, enstatite UHT granulite argillaceous marble (sakenite)
FKM-29 Mt. Yukspor, Khibiny massif, Russia eudialyte, aegirine, titanite, microcline eudialyte syenite REE, Zr, Ti
FKM-30 Woods mine, Tamworth, NSW, Australia merwinite-structure phosphate? (BaNa2Mn2+[PO4]2), braunite, rhodonite, sérandite, natronambulite?, amphibole (kôzulite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually mangano-mangani-ungarettiite/”potassic-mangano-mangani-ungarettiite”]), quartz meta manganiferous sediment Mn, Li?
FKM-31 Mysore district, Karnataka, India corundum, fuchsite, tschermakite high grade meta-argillite Cr
FKM-32a Karelia, Russia pyrite, rutile, ilmenite, apatite (fluorapatite), garnet (almandine), kyanite, Cr-rich staurolite, mica (muscovite, biotite [phlogopite]), feldspar (plagioclase [“oligoclase”]) metapelite Cr
FKM-32b Karelia, Russia fuchsite, pyrite, garnet, kyanite, biotite metapelite Cr
FKM-33 Jayville mine, NY, USA spinel group (magnetite), calcite, amphibole (K-F-Cl-rich hastingsite), serpentine (greenalite?), mica (biotite [Mg-F-rich annite/Mg-OH-rich fluorannite]), quartz Fe mine silicate alteration assemblage K, F, Cl, Fe
FKM-34 Nordfjord, Norway chalcopyrite, cobaltpentlandite, rutile, apatite (fluorapatite/hydroxylapatite), zircon, garnet (Ca-Mg-rich almandine/Fe-Ca-rich pyrope), kyanite, zoisite, pyroxene (omphacite), amphibole (magnesio-hornblende, barroisite/taramite), mica (paragonite) mafic eclogite
FKM-35 Bancroft, Ontario, Canada (?) plagioclase, aegirine, sodalite, nepheline Na-metasomatite (fenite) Cl, Fe
FKM-36 Franklin marble, NY or NJ, USA spinel group (spinel), calcite, dolomite, humite group (chondrodite) high grade marble F
FKM-37 Franklin marble, NY or NJ, USA graphite, calcite, spinel, fluoborite, sinhalite, warwickite high grade marble B, F, Zr
FKM-38 Cascade Slide, Adirondacks, NY, USA calcite, garnet (Al-rich andradite), REE-rich vesuvianite, pyroxene (diopside) marble REE
FKM-39 Chara river, Murun, Siberia, Russia charoite, aegirine, tinaksite, k-spar, quartz K-metasomatite (fenite) Sr, Ba
FKM-39b Chara river, Murun, Siberia, Russia charoite, aegirine, tinaksite, k-spar, quartz K-metasomatite (fenite) Sr, Ba
FKM-40 Antanimora commune, Tular province, Madagascar (stated as from “Majunga”) spinel group (spinel), calcite, apatite (fluorapatite/chlorapatite), olivine (forsterite), 1:1 chlorite-smectite interstratification (“Ca-dominant Li-bearing tosudite”), quartz high grade marble Cl
FKM-41 Oka, Québec, Canada spinel group (magnetite), pyrochlore group (F-bearing hydroxycalciopyrochlore?), calcite, barite, apatite (fluorapatite), pyroxene (diopside), mica (biotite [phlogopite]) carbonatite Nb, P
FKM-42 Martiniana Po, Dora Maira, Italy rutile, monazite-(Ce), zircon, garnet (pyrope), kyanite, talc, mica (“phengite” [along {muscovite}-{aluminoceladonite} join]), quartz, coesite? whiteschist Mg, Al
FKM-43 Broken Hill, NSW, Australia chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), olivine (tephroite) high grade Mn-rich marble Mn
FKM-44 Imilchil, Morocco Mg-bearing ilmenite, titanite, epidote group (epidote), pyroxene (diopside), amphibole (actinolite/ferro-actinolite/”Na-Ti-Fe3+-rich oxo/calcic amphibole ss” [roughly along {ferri-kaersutite}-{edenite} join]), chlorite (clinochlore), quartz Ca-(Na)-metasomatite Ti, Fe
FKM-45 Sterling Hill, NJ, USA galena, Cd-rich sphalerite, pyrophanite, spinel group (gahnite, Mn-rich franklinite), Mn-rich calcite, willemite, pyroxene (“jeffersonite” [Mn-Zn-rich diopside/Mn-Zn-rich augite]), rhodonite, amphibole (Mn-Zn-rich hastingsite, Mn-Zn-rich tremolite), mica (biotite [hendricksite (not observed; actually Mn-Zn-rich phlogopite)]) high grade Zn-bearing marble Zn, Mn
FKM-46 Moose River, NY, USA prismatine, cordierite, quartz UHT granulite metapelite B
FKM-47 Sussex Co., NJ, USA willemite, franklinite high grade Zn-bearing marble Zn, Mn
FKM-48 Sussex Co., NJ, USA calcite, rhodochrosite, spinel group (gahnite, Mn-rich franklinite), willemite, olivine (historically Mg-Zn-rich tephroite, but may instead be an ordered “MnMg-olivine”) high grade Zn-bearing marble Zn, Mn
FKM-49 San Carlos complex, Tamaulipas, Mexico aegirine, titanite, K-feldspar, nepheline syenite Ti
FKM-50 Lovozero massif, Russia murmanite, aegirine, plagioclase, orthoclase nepheline syenite Nb
FKM-51 Lovozero massif, Russia lorenzenite, aegirine, plagioclase, orthoclase nepheline syenite Ti, Nb
FKM-52 Dara-i-Pioz, Tajikistan reedmergnerite, quartz alkali granite B, REE, Cs, Zr
FKM-53 Tres Pozos, Baja California Norte, Mexico gillespite, sanbornite, celsian, alforsite, bazirite, cerchiaraite, witherite Ba-metasomatite Ba
FKM-53b Tres Pozos, Baja California Norte, Mexico gillespite, sanbornite, celsian Ba-metasomatite Ba
FKM-54 (Sterling Hill?) Franklin district, NJ, USA rhodonite, franklinite, “jeffersonite” high grade Mn-metasomatite Mn
FKM-55 Oka, Québec, Canada calcite, apatite, pyrochlore carbonatite Nb, P
FKM-56 Oka, Québec, Canada melilite, hauyne melilitite S
FKM-57 Oka, Québec, Canada niocalite, calcite carbonatite Nb
FKM-58 Meldon mine, Okehampton, Devon, UK malayaite, diopside, quartz, andradite skarn Sn
FKM-59 Waldheim, Saxony, Germany prismatine, quartz, dravite, cordierite, garnet granulite B
FKM-60 Umbozero mine, Lovozero massif, Russia sérandite, ussingite, aegirine nepheline syenite Mn
FKM-61 Canta, Lima, Peru dumortierite, foitite meta-argillite B
FKM-62 Khibiny massif, Russia aegirine, eudialyte ,apatite, potassic-arfvedsonite nepheline syenite Zr
FKM-63 Mahenge, Morogoro, Tanzania spinel group (spinel [in hand sample but not in thin section]), calcite, amphibole (F-rich pargasite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (clinochlore) high grade marble
FKM-64 Kipawa complex, Villedieu township, Québec, Canada miserite, eudialyte eudialyte syenite (metamorphosed) REE, Zr
FKM-65 Kipawa complex, Villedieu township, Québec, Canada mosandrite, plagioclase, eudialyte, arfvedsonite eudialyte syenite (metamorphosed) Zr
FKM-66 Cerro Sapo, Bolivia Fe-rich dolomite/Mg-rich ankerite, strontianite, burbankite, dawsonite, ancylite-(Ce), alunite supergroup (goyazite), feldspar (k-spar [orthoclase]), sodalite group (sodalite), zeolite (“Sr-edingtonite?”, analcime) ankerite carbonatite Cl, Sr, Ba, REE
FKM-67 Plenty River mine area, Harts Range, NT, Australia kornerupine, biotite, feldspar, quartz, tourmaline granulite
FKM-68 Longido, Tanzania spinel group (spinel), corundum, diaspore, zoisite, pumpellyite-(Al), amphibole (Cr-rich pargasite), chlorite (clinochlore) granulite meta-argillite Cr
FKM-69 Mautia Hill, Tanzania rutile, hematite, kyanite, yoderite, talc, quartz whiteschist
FKM-69b Mautia Hill, Tanzania rutile, hematite, kyanite, yoderite, talc, quartz whiteschist
FKM-70 Tsukigaya mine, Fukushima, Japan dumortierite, foitite, quartz meta-argillite B
FKM-71 Alto Chapare, Bolivia hematite, hydromagnesite, tourmaline (oxy-dravite, povondraite/alumino-povondraite/”K-povondraite”), talc, feldspar (K-spar [presumably microcline or adularia]) K-B-metasomatite K, B
FKM-72 Klause, Bad Gleichenberg, Styria, Austria kolbeckite (in hand sample but not in thin section) altered latite Sc
FKM-73 Stokkøya, Langesundfjord, Norway hiortdahlite, plagioclase nepheline syenite Zr
FKM-74 Palabora, South Africa calcite, aegirine, apatite, k-spar carbonatite
FKM-75 120 km E of Lusaka, Zambia cobaltpentlandite, thiospinel (linnaeite), rutile, hematite, ilmenite, spinel group (magnetite), “cobalto-högbomite-2N2S“, sillimanite, kyanite, Co-rich staurolite, mica (margarite), chlorite (clinochlore), quartz amphibolite grade siliceous “emery” Co
FKM-76 Broken Hill, NSW, Australia inesite, calcite, quartz high grade Mn-metasomatite Mn
FKM-77 Ilímaussaq intrusion, Greenland nepheline, eudialyte, aegirine, plagioclase kakortakite Na, Zr
FKM-78 Bozeman corundum mine, Gallatin Co., MT, USA corundum, feldspar, biotite gneiss
FKM-79 Black Rock, Leucite Hills, WY, USA fluoro-potassicrichterite (listed on dealer label but not observed; actually diopside), phlogopite, olivine lamproite (orendite) F, K
FKM-80 In den Dellen quarry, Laacher See volcano, Eifel, Germany hauyne, aegirine, sanidine, magnetite phonolite S
FKM-81 Wipper Valley, Biesenrode, Harz Mountains, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany apatite (fluorapatite), carpholite/magnesiocarpholite, chlorite (sudoite) high P-low T metamafic?
FKM-82 Itremo commune, Fianarantsoa prov., Madagascar dumortierite, sillimanite, quartz, k-spar pegmatite? B
FKM-83 Långban, Sweden magnesioferrite metamorphosed Pb-Ba-Mn metasomite Pb, Ba, Mn
FKM-84 3 km SW of Kansi, Hpakant-Tawmaw jade tract, Kachin state, Burma jadeite, kosmochlor, eckermannite, albite blueschist Cr
FKM-85 Přibyslavice, Bohemia, Czech Republic apatite (fluorapatite), tourmaline (oxy-schorl), mica (muscovite), feldspar (K-spar [perthite orthoclase host], plagioclase [perthite albite lamellae]), quartz granite B
FKM-86 Långban, Sweden melanotekite, phlogopite, celsian metamorphosed Pb-Ba-Mn metasomite Pb, Ba, Mn, As
FKM-87 Franklin, NJ, USA esperite high grade Zn-bearing marble Zn, Mn, Pb
FKM-88 (Parker shaft?), Franklin, NJ, USA hancockite, andradite, willemite, franklinite Pb-bearing skarn Pb
FKM-89 Bastnäs, Sweden cerite-(Ce), ferriallanite-(Ce), tremolite REE metasomatite REE
FKM-90 Point of Rock quarry, Colfax Co., NM, USA mangan-neptunite, sanidine, nepheline, aegirine phonolite Mn, Li
FKM-91 Västanåberget, Sweden monazite-(La)/monazite-(Ce), Mn-rich andalusite, mica (muscovite), chlorite (clinochlore) schist Mn
FKM-92 Tetětice (Struhadlo?), near Klatovy, Bohemia, Czech Republic goldmanite, pyrrhotite, calcite, tremolite, mukhinite metamorphosed U-V rollfront V
FKM-93 Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India ferro-ferri-tschermakite (listed on dealer label but not observed; instead opx and cpx), anorthite aluminous amphibolite (“ferrosilite diorite”)
FKM-94 Broken Hill, NSW, Australia spessartine, galena, sphalerite high grade Mn-metasomatite Mn
FKM-95 Isua, Greenland spinel group (magnetite), calcite, apatite (hydroxylapatite), amphibole (actinolite), quartz banded iron formation Fe
FKM-96 Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada pentlandite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, ilmenite, spinel group (magnetite, hercynite), apatite (fluorapatite), olivine (Mg-rich fayalite), garnet (almandine), pyroxene (“hypersthene”, diopside/augite), amphibole (Ti-rich magnesio-hastingsite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (clinochlore), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase], plagioclase [“oligoclase”]) coronitic metagabbro
FKM-97 Bohemia, Czech Republic apatite (fluorapatite), garnet (grossular/andradite), epidote group (epidote), pyroxene (hedenbergite) garnet clinopyroxenite Fe
FKM-98 Kola Peninsula, Russia eudialyte, nepheline eudialyte syenite Zr
FKM-99 northern New Caledonia glaucophane retrrograded blueschist
FKM-100 Mayavetch River, Poubo terrane, northern New Caledonia glaucophane, fuchsite blueschist
FKM-101 Chester, VT USA chlorite, talc, pyrite, apatite greenschist metabasite
FKM-102 near Custer, SD, USA monazite-(Ce), apatite (fluorapatite), tourmaline (oxy-dravite/dravite), mica (muscovite, biotite [annite]), quartz (very minor!), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase, microcline], plagioclase [albite]) B-bearing metapelite B
FKM-103 Kimberley, South Africa garnet, forsterite kimberlite
FKM-104 Harding pegmatite, NM, USA fluorcalciomicrolite, mica (lepidolite [not observed; actually Li-rich muscovite]), pucherite (or polymorph), feldspar (K-spar [microcline]) Li-Ta pegmatite Li, Ta, Bi
FKM-105 K-2 area, Gilgit-Baltistan region, Pakistan microcline, quartz, azurite, biotite, muscovite, epidote, chlorite, titanite, albite granitic gneiss with blue spots Cu
FKM-106 Damtjern Lake, Fen complex, Norway clinopyroxene, pargasite, ilmenite, phlogopite, ülvospinel-magnetite, calcite damkjernite dike (alnoitic lamprophyre) Ti
FKM-107 Mobetsu, Madagascar grandidierite, phlogopite B-bearing metamorphic B
FKM-108 Vihobola, Madagascar grandidierite, phlogopite, diopside B-bearing diopside pyroxenite B
FKM-109 unknown locality, but presumed to be from the Franciscan assemblage of California rutile, zircon, garnet (almandine), titanite, lawsonite, epidote group (epidote), amphibole (glaucophane/magnesio-riebeckite), mica (muscovite/aluminoceladonite), chlorite (clinochlore) mafic blueschist
FKM-110 unknown locality, but presumed to be from Crestmore garnet, vesuvianite, wollastonite skarn
FKM-111 unknown locality lawsonite, garnet blueschist
FKM-112 unknown locality, but presumed to be from the Franklin marble of NJ or NY spinel group (spinel), ilmenite, calcite, dolomite, apatite (fluorapatite), olivine (forsterite), humite group (hydroxylclinohumite/clinohumite), amphibole (pargasite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]) spinel phlogopite marble F
FKM-113 Training School flow, University of Hawaii campus, Honolulu, HI, USA nepheline, olivine nephelinite
FKM-114 Moiliile quarry, Honolulu, HI, USA nepheline, melilite, olivine, pyroxene nephelinite
FKM-115 Windham, VT, USA Ti-rich hematite, Fe-rich dolomite, chlorite (clinochlore) ankerite chlorite schist
FKM-116 Hague, Warren Co., NY, USA almandine, sillimanite, cordierite, K-feldspar granulite metapelite
FKM-118 Mountain Pass, CA, USA calcite, barite, bastnasite carbonatite Ba, REE
FKM-119 Brumado, Bahia, Brazil tourmaline (uvite), talc Mg-metasomatite B, Mg
FKM-120 Yasman valley, Tien Shan mountains, Tajikistan nepheline, cancrinite, biotite nepheline syenite
FKM-121 American #1 talc mine, Balmat-Edwards, NY, USA galena, sphalerite, calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), zircon, amphibole (tremolite), talc, mica (biotite [“interlayer-deficiency phlogopite”]), granulite facies metasomatic metacarbonate
FKM-122 ZCA #4 mine, Balmat-Edwards, NY, USA apatite (turneaureite [not observed; actually As-rich chlorapatite]), tourmaline (uvite), pyroxene (donpeacorite), amphibole (“manganocummingtonite”) granulite facies metasomatic metacarbonate Mn
FKM-123 Gouverneur mine, Fowler, NY, USA calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), braunite, amphibole (tremolite), talc granulite facies metasomatic metacarbonate Mn
FKM-124a Hpakant-Tawmaw jade tract, Kachin state, Burma jadeite blueschist metasomatite
FKM-124b Hpakant-Tawmaw jade tract, Kachin state, Burma pyroxene (jadeite), amphibole (potassic-richterite/richterite/eckermannite), mica (biotite [“interlayer-deficient phlogopite”]), vermiculite, mixed layer serpentine/chlorite? (~A0.5(Mg3.5Al1.5□)[Si4O10](OH)8), zeolite (harmotome) blueschist metasomatite
FKM-126 Willsboro, Essex Co., NY, USA calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), garnet (grossular/andradite), pyroxene (diopside), wollastonite, quartz pyroxene hornfels facies calc-silicate
FKM-127 Hiassu farm, Itaju do Colnia, Bahia, Brazil sodalite, cancrinite sodalite syenite Cl
FKM-128 Mt. Ruoutevare, 13 km N. of Kvikkjokk, Lappland, Sweden magnesio-högbomite (listed on dealer label but not observed), magnetite, ilmenite, amphibole high grade Fe-Ti oxide Ti
FKM-129 Braintree complex, VT, USA pyrrhotite, pyrite/Co-bearing pyrite, ilmenite, celestite, apatite (fluorapatite), zircon, titanite, epidote group (allanite-(Ce)/REE-rich epidote, epidote/Sc-bearing epidote/clinozoisite), amphibole (magnesio-ferri-hornblende/ferro-ferri-tschermakite), mica (biotite [annite]), chlorite (chamosite), feldspar (plagioclase [albite]) metasomatized quartz ferro-diorite Fe, Ti
FKM-130 eudialyte prospect (Windy Fork granite pluton?), McGrath district, Alaska Range, AK USA eudialyte, arfvedsonite, feldspar nepheline syenite Zr, REE
FKM-131 Mary Kathleen, QLD, Australia allanite-(Ce), stillwellite-(Ce), diopside, andradite REE metasomatite B, REE
FKM-132 Armstrong farm, Johnsburg township, Warren Co., NY, USA serendibite, phlogopite B-bearing skarn B
FKM-133 Zillertal, Austria ilmenite, rutile, Fe-rich magnesite, apatite (F-rich hydroxylapatite), monazite, talc, “mixed layer ~2[talc]-~1[“Al-bearing serpentine”]?” low grade metabasite
FKM-134 unknown locality, but presumed to be from NY serendibite, phlogopite B-bearing metamorphic B
FKM-135 unknown locality, but presumed to be from Madagascar (Andrahomana?) grandidierite B-bearing metamorphic B
FKM-136 San Vito quarry, Monte Somma, Vesuvius, Italy meionite altered calcareous ejecta
FKM-137 unknown locality, but presumed to be from Stillwater complex, MT bronzite orthopyroxenite
FKM-138 Spurr mine, Imperial Heights, Baraga Co., MI, USA ilmenite, HREE-rich xenotime, apatite (fluorapatite), chloritoid, mica (muscovite/Fe-rich muscovite), chlorite (chamosite), quartz low grade Fe-rich metamorphic
FKM-139 El Paso Co., CO, USA riebeckite, quartz, perthite alkali granite Na
FKM-140 Fuka mine, Fuka, Bicchu-cho, Takahashi City, Okayama prefecture, Japan tilleyite, calcite, perovskite, andradite sanidinite facies metacarbonate B
FKM-141 Laytonville quarry, Mendocino Co, CA, USA howeite, riebeckite blueschist facies metasediment Fe
FKM-142 Galgenberg, near Leoben, Steirmark, Austria chloritoid biotite facies metapelite
FKM-143 Iron Cap mine, Graham Co., AZ, USA johansennite skarn Mn
FKM-144 Hålsjöberg, Sweden wyllieite, scorzalite advanced argillic assemblage P
FKM-145 Norra Kärr, Småland, Sweden catapleiite, eudialyte nepheline syenite Zr
FKM-146 Norra Kärr, Småland, Sweden rosenbuschite nepheline syenite Zr
FKM-147 Laytonville quarry, Mendocino Co, CA, USA apatite (fluorapatite), epidote group (ferriallanite-(La)/allanite-(Nd)), deerite, zussmanite, “K-deficient stilpnomelane”, quartz blueschist facies metasediment
FKM-148 near Gascoyne Junction (Brockman Creek?), WA, Australia spinel group (chromite/magnetite), apatite (fluorapatite), olivine (forsterite), pyroxene (diopside), chlorite (clinochlore), nepheline kimberlite Cr
FKM-149 Saranovskoe mine, Ural Mountains, Russia calcite, spinel group (chromite/magnesiochromite), garnet (uvarovite), chlorite (Cr-rich clinochlore) metamorphosed altered chromatite Cr
FKM-151 Øvstebø, Kleppan, Sauland, Hjartdal, Telemark, Norway vesuvianite (cuprian), zoisite (manganian), quartz calc-silicate Cu, Mn
FKM-152 Durham Ranch, Wright, Campbell Co., WY, USA ferroindialite (listed on dealer label but not observed; actually no recognizable minerals present… all glass) paralava (lava interaction with coal seam)
FKM-153 Ovrevatnet, Nusfjord, Flakstadøya, Lofoten, Nordland, Norway potassic-chloro-ferro-sadanagaite (listed on dealer label but not observed; actually augite), plagioclase alkali chloride metasomatite Cl, Fe
FKM-154 New Amianthus mine, Kaapsche Hoop, Barberton, Mpumalanga province, RSA stichtite-2H, chrysotile, chromite asbestos deposit Cr
FKM-155 Sar-e-Sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan gypsum, celestite, monazite-(Ce), apatite (fluorapatite), epidote group (allanite-(Ce)), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase], plagioclase [albite]), scapolite (marialite) meta-evaporite Cl, S
FKM-156 Malyshevo mine, Ural Mountains, Russia chrysoberyl, mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (clinochlore) schist intruded by pegmatites Be
FKM-157 Lovozero massif, Russia mangan-neptunite nepheline syenite Mn, Li
FKM-158 Khit Ostrov, northern Karelia, Russia corundum, ilmenite, rutile, garnet (almandine), epidote group (allanite-(Ce)), amphibole (tschermakite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), chlorite (clinochlore), feldspar (plagioclase [“oligoclase”] syenitic gneiss Cr
FKM-159 Orford Nickel mine, St. Denis de Brompton, Québec, Canada grossular, diopside calc-silicate near contact with serpentinized peridotite Ni
FKM-160 Mt. St. Hilaire, Québec, Canada hackmannite, aegirine, nepheline sodalite syenite Cl
FKM-161 Picuris district, Taos Co., NM, USA actinolite, epidote, garnet amphibolite
FKM-162 Kilbourne Hole, Doña Ana Co., NM, USA spinel group (spinel), olivine (forsterite), pyroxene (enstatite, diopside) mantle peridotite nodule in basalt Cr
FKM-163 Graves Mountain, Lincoln Co., GA, USA lazulite, quartz advanced argillic assemblage P
FKM-164 Altay pegmatite, Fuyun Co., Xianjiang Autonomous region, China holmquistite metasomatic margin of Li pegmatite Li
FKM-165 Yates mine, Otter Lake, Québec, Canada calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), zircon, titanite, epidote group (allanite-(Ce), epidote), pyroxene (diopside), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), scapolite (“wernerite”) skarn or possibly carbonatitic migmatite REE, Ti
FKM-166 Serra de Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil spinel group (chromite), tourmaline (Cr-rich oxy-dravite), mica (Cr-rich muscovite) alteration? associated with Au mineralization Cr, B
FKM-167 Graves Mountain, Lincoln Co., GA, USA rutile, “Al-oxyhydroxide” (diaspore?, böhmite?), “Fe-oxyhydroxide” (goethite?, lepidocrocite?), alunite supergroup (Ca-rich svanbergite/Sr-rich woodhouseite/Ca-rich schlossmacherite?), zircon, kyanite, pyrophyllite, quartz advanced argillic assemblage Al, Sr, P, S
FKM-168 Picuris range, Glenwoody district, Taos Co., NM, USA zoisite (manganian), vesuvianite, grossular, quartz, apatite (arsenian) calc-silicate Mn, As
FKM-170 Wagholi, India calcite, cavansite, stilbite low temperature cavity filling in basalt V
FKM-171 Prabornaz mine, St. Marcel, Italy cerianite-(Ce), hollandite group (Sr-rich hollandite/Sr-rich cryptomelane), barite, V-bearing “gasparite-(La)”, zircon, braunite, macfallite, epidote group (piemontite/REE-rich tweddillite), pyroxene (jadeite, aegirine), mica (reported as “alurgite”: Mn-rich aluminoceladonite, biotite [Mn-rich phlogopite]), feldspar (K-spar [variably Ba-rich orthoclase?], hyalophane, plagioclase [albite]) meta manganiferous sediment Mn, REE, Ba, Sr
FKM-172 El Hoyazo, Spain biotite, garnet, sillimanite lower crustal felsic xenolith
FKM-173 N’Chwaning III mine, Kuruman, Northern Cape, RSA hennomartinite, “SrSr-ruizite”, cherchiaraite-(Mn), “Al-sugilite”/sugilite, pyroxene (aegirine), pectolite, amphibole (potassic-richterite/”potassic-magnesio-mangani-afvedsonite”), quartz hydrothermal Mn metasediment Mn, Li
FKM-174 Načetín, Poběžovice, Plzeň region, Bohemia, Czech Republic ilmenite, spinel group (magnetite), olivine (Mg-rich fayalite), amphibole (ferri-tschermakite, tremolite), serpentine (greenalite), chlorite (clinochlore) meta ferruginous sediment/exhalite? Fe
FKM-175 Norra Kärr, Småland, Sweden eckermannite (listed on dealer label but not observed; actually fluoro-leakeite), pectolite nepheline syenite Li
FKM-176 feldspar quarry, Vysoký Kámen, Krásno, Horní Slavkov, Czech Republic koechlinite, powellite albitized aplite Bi, Mo, U
FKM-177 Bordvedaven, Høgtuva, Norway høgtuvaite peraluminous granitic gneiss Be
FKM-178 Bjurliden, Norsjö, Västerbotten, Sweden gahnite, sulfides Besshi-type meta hydrothermal exhalite Zn
FKM-179 Crestmore quarry, Riverside Co., CA, USA calcite, apatite (hydroxylapatite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually P-S-bearing hydroxylellestadite)]), olivine (monticellite), garnet (grossular/andradite) high grade marble P, S
FKM-180 Ilímaussaq intrusion, Greenland narsarsukite agpaitic intrusion Ti
FKM-181 Ilímaussaq intrusion, Greenland naujakasite agpaitic intrusion
FKM-182 Stolberg by Ludvika, Dalarna, Sweden pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, hematite, rhodochrosite/calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), olivine (historically Fe-rich tephroite, but may instead be an ordered “MnFe-olivine”), serpentine? (Mg-Fe-rich caryopilite?/”Mn-Fe-rich Mg-caryopilite”?) Mn metasomatite Mn
FKM-183 Fuka mine, Fuka, Bicchu-cho, Takahashi City, Okayama prefecture, Japan hillebrandtite, spurrite sanidinite facies metacarbonate
FKM-184 Edenville, near Warwick, Orange Co., NY, USA ilmenite, spinel group (spinel), U- and REE-bearing zirconolite, calcite, dolomite, warwickite, olivine (forsterite), humite group (clinohumite), talc, chlorite (clinochlore) high grade marble B, Ti, Zr, F
FKM-185 Falotta, Tinzen, Switzerland tinzenite Mn metasomatite Mn, B
FKM-186 Malšov by Kuntá Hora, Czech Republic pentlandite, nickeline, cobaltite, gersdorffite, spinel group (chromite), calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), amphibole (anthophyllite, magnesio-hornblende), talc, mica (biotite [phlogopite]) metamorphic Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, As
FKM-187 Dehesa, San Diego Co., CA, USA dumortierite, pyrophyllite advanced argillic assemblage B
FKM-188 Norberg, Västmanland, Sweden fluorite, spinel group (magnetite), calcite, “gadolinite-(Nd)”, epidote group (dollaseite-(Ce)), amphibole (tremolite) REE metasomatite REE, Mg, Be
FKM-189 Loch Scridain area, Isle of Mull, Scotland, UK mullite, corundum, spinel sanidinite facies metapelite
FKM-190 Nippyo mine, Awano, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture, Honshu Island, Japan proto-ferro-suenoite, pyroxmangite, pyrophanite hydrothermal Mn metasediment Mn
FKM-191 Andrakaholo, Anosy region, Tuléar province, Malagasy Republic hibonite, corundum, spinel group (spinel), baddeleyite, zirconolite, thorianite, calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), feldspar (plagioclase [anorthite]) sanidinite facies metacarbonate Zr, Th, REE
FKM-192 Union Carbide mine, Hot Springs area, AR, USA wollastonite, aegirine nepheline syenite Ti, V
FKM-193 Långban, Sweden cymrite metamorphosed Pb-Ba-Mn metasomite Pb, Ba, Mn
FKM-194 Webing, near Abtenau, Salzburg, Austria crossite metasomatic(?) blueschist
FKM-195 Sunnyside mine, Silverton, CO, USA pyroxmangite hydrothermal Mn
FKM-196 Namibia cassiterite, quartz, k-spar Sn granite Sn
FKM-197 SW Tasmania, Australia stichtite, serpentine altered Cr-rich ultramafic Cr
FKM-198 Black Mtn., Greenwood, ME, USA elbaite, lepidolite, albite, quartz Li pegmatite Li
FKM-199 Kandesei, Kaokoveld Plateau, Kunene region, Namibia shattuckite hydrothermal Cu deposit Cu
FKM-200 Red Cloud fluorite mine, Lincoln Co., NM, USA bastnasite-(Ce), fluorite REE metasomatite REE, F
FKM-201 Schmorrasgrat-Süd, Starlera, Ferrera Valley, Grischun, Switzerland hematite, Mn-rich calcite, garnet (calderite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually Mn-rich andradite]), pyroxene (aegirine-augite) Mn metasomatite Mn
FKM-202 Sierra de Comechingones, San Luis province, Argentina vanadium, fluorite, hibonite, grossite, diaoyudaoite?, “K-diaoyudaoite”?, “Al-V-Mg-oxide”?, perovskite, gehlenite sanidinite facies (artificial?) slag?; perhaps a thermite reaction product? purported to be natural V
FKM-203 Sannidal, near Kragerø, Telemark, Norway TiO2 (rutile?), monazite, xenotime, apatite (Cl-bearing hydroxylapatite), epidote group (allanite-(Ce)), amphibole (actinolite), chlorite (clinochlore), quartz alkali chloride metasomatite Cl, Fe, REE
FKM-204 Québec, Canada scapolite (meionite), calcite high grade marble
FKM-205 Anosy region, Tuléar province, Malagasy Republic spinel group (spinel), thorianite, baddeleyite, calcite, apatite (fluorapatite), epidote group (dissakisite-(Ce)), pyroxene (Al-rich diopside), amphibole (fluoro-pargasite), serpentine/chlorite (~(Mg3Al2□)[Si4O10](OH)8), zeolite granulite facies metacarbonate Th, Zr, REE
FKM-206 New Idria district, San Benito Co., CA, USA andradite (titanian), perovskite Ti metasomatite Ti
FKM-207 Eveslogchorr Mtn., Khibiny massif, Russia aenigmatite nepheline syenite Ti
FKM-208 Ivigtut, Greenland sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, acanthite, cryolite, hematite, “Fe-oxyhydroxide” (goethite?, lepidocrocite?), siderite, quartz granite pegmatite associated F metasomatite F
FKM-209 Faria mine, Golconda district, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil fluorapatite, bertrandite, albite, chlorite granite pegmatite Be
FKM-210 Brumado, Bahia, Brazil uvite, magnesite, celestite, Mg-bearing ilmenite, Mg-bearing magnetite, phlogopite/fluorophlogopite, zircon, muscovite, Fe-oxy-hydroxide/goethite Mg-metasomatite B, Mg
FKM-211 Kipawa complex, Villedieu township, Québec, Canada gittinsite, vlasovite, eudialyte eudialyte syenite Zr
FKM-212 Mount Riiser-Larsen, Enderby Land, Antarctica spinel group (magnetite), sillimanite, osumilite, “K-free osumilite” (= 1 cordierite + 6 quartz), cordierite, pyroxene (Al-rich enstatite), mica (biotite [phlogopite]), 1:1 chlorite-smectite interstratification? (“Mg-dominant tosudite”), feldspar (K-spar [microperthite orthoclase? host], plagioclase [microperthite albite lamellae, albite]), quartz UHT metapelitic granulite Mg
FKM-213 near Erbareti, Vercelli, Piemonte, Italy opx [reported but not observed], garnet gneiss
FKM-214 Hålsjöberg, Sweden pyrite, rutile, hematite, anhydrite, pretulite, wagnerite, lazulite, apatite (fluorapatite), Sc-bearing zircon, kyanite, quartz advanced argillic assemblage P, Sc, F, Ti, Al
FKM-215 Saranovskoe mine, Ural Mountains, Russia chromian amesite, chromite metamorphosed altered chromatite Cr
FKM-216 Långban, Sweden iwakiite, pyrochlore group (fluorcalcioroméite), Mn-rich calcite, barite, caryinite [listed on dealer label, but not observed], apatite (Pb-rich johnbaumite), pyroxene (augite/aegirine-augite), amphibole (Mn-bearing richterite) metamorphosed Pb-Ba-Mn metasomite Mn, Pb, As, Sb
FKM-217 Tanco pegmatite, Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada wodginite, microcline, lepidolite Li-Ta-Cs pegmatite Mn, Sn, Ta
FKM-218 (Löhley?), Üdersdorf, Eifel, Germany pyrrhotite, spinel group (Ti-rich magnetite, Fe-rich magnesiochromite), perovskite, magnetoplumbite group (roughly along batiferrite-haggertyite join), calzirtite?, apatite group (Sr-rich fluorapatite), olivine (forsterite), fresnoite, lamprophyllite group (Fe-rich lileyite or Fe+Mg-rich schüllerite?), pyroxene (diopside), mica (biotite [Ba+Ti-rich fluorophlogopite]), nepheline, leucite, sodalite group (haüyne), zeolite (clinoptilolite-Ca?/+unknown) olivine clinopyroxene leucite nephelinite Ba, Ti
FKM-219 Anna mine, Horní Planá (by Mariánské Lázně), Czech Republic roscoelite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually V-bearing chlorite] metasomatite? V, As, Ni, U
FKM-220 Pacific Limestone Products quarry (Kalkar quarry), Santa Cruz Co., CA, USA galena, pyrite, uraninite, calcite, gypsum, apatite (fluorapatite/hydroxylapatite), pabstite, pyroxene (diopside), amphibole (tremolite), feldspar (celsian), quartz metasomatized metacarbonate Ba, Sn
FKM-221 Little Green Monster mine, Clay Canyon, Fairfield, UT, USA variscite, crandallite, wardite phosphate nodules in limestone P, Sc
FKM-222 near Mama River, Siberia, Russia lazulite advanced argillic assemblage P
FKM-223 Kvanefjeld, Ilímaussaq intrusion, Greenland neptunite nepheline syenite Mn, Ti
FKM-224 Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil manganoeudialyte nepheline syenite Mn, Zr
FKM-225 Kaznakhtinskii massif, Ust’-Koksa district, Altai Republic, Russia iowaite, chromite, stichtite metamorphosed altered chromatite Cr
FKM-226 Khungtukun massif, Taimyr, Siberia, Russia copper, iron, cohenite, troilite, hematite, ilmenite, spinel group (hercynite), olivine (Fe-rich forsterite/fayalite), pyroxene (Fe-rich pigeonite, Fe-rich augite), chlorite/smectite (“mixed layer chamosite+smectite”?), feldspar (K-spar [sanidine?/orthoclase?], plagioclase [“labradorite”/”andesine”]) mafic (gabbro/basalt) intrusion into coal seam Fe, C
FKM-227 Eveslogchorr Mtn., Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia astrophyllite, microcline, nepheline nepheline syenite Fe, Ti, Nb, Zr
FKM-228 Varenche mine, Saint-Barthélemy, Nus, Aosta valley, Italy hematite, crichtonite group (“M2Mn-senaite”), rutile, Mn-rich calcite, kutnohorite, gasparite-(Ce), HREE-rich chernovite-(Y), garnet (Mn-rich berzeliite/manganberzeliite), “Na2Ca3Mn3[AsO4]4(OH)2 . 6H2O”?, apatite (fluorapatite, As-bearing fluorapatite/As-bearing hydroxylapatite), As-bearing titanite, talc, quartz, feldspar (plagioclase [albite]) Mn metasomatite Mn, As, Ti
FKM-229 Panj River gorge, ~5 km N of Vogde,Tajikistan almandine, biotite high grade melanosomic restite in migmatitic leucogranite
FKM-230 Madagascar (probably Ampanihy rhodonite deposit, Tuléar province) rhodonite Mn metasomatite Mn
FKM-231 Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil brazilianite, microcline granite pegmatite P, Be
FKM-232 India (reportedly Ganjam, Orissa) corundum, cordierite, sillimanite, kyanite amphibolite to granulite metapelite Cr
FKM-233 India (reportedly from the Mysore district) spinel [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually garnet], feldspar, amphibole amphibolite Cr
FKM-234 Russia (probably Ekaterinburg, Urals region) rhodonite Mn metasomatite Mn
FKM-235 Summit Rock, Klamath Co., OR, USA spinel group (magnetite), hematite, ilmenite, rutile?, apatite group (fluorapatite), olivine (Fe-rich forsterite), zircon, pyroxene (“hypersthene”, pigeonite?, augite), feldspar (plagioclase [“bytownite”/”labradorite”/”andesine”]) residual melt ± vapor phase growth in basaltic andesite Fe, Ti
FKM-236 Jakobsberg, Varmland, Sweden barylite, hausmannite, calcite metamorphosed Pb-Ba-Mn metasomite Ba, Be, Mn
FKM-237 Magnet Cove, Hot Springs Co., AR, USA sphalerite, pyrite/Co-bearing pyrite, fluorite, Mn-rich ilmenite, Ti-tich magnetite, loparite-(Ce), bastnäsite-(Ce), apatite (fluorapatite), monazite-(Ce), titanite, pyroxene (diopside/aegirine/aegirine-augite), amphibole (~{fluoro-ferri-nybøite}-{ferri-obertiite} join/~{fluoro-magnesio-arfvedsonite}-{ferri-katophorite} join), mica (muscovite, biotite [fluoro-phlogopite/phlogopite/annite]), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase in mesoperthite], plagioclase [albite in mesoperthite]), zeolite (analcime) nepheline(?) analcime syenite Ti, REE, F, Na
FKM-238 Pacific Limestone Products quarry (Kalkar quarry), Santa Cruz Co., CA, USA sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite, molybdenite (not verified), gersdorffite, calcite, dolomite, apatite (fluorapatite), barite, olivine (forsterite), zircon, “cherchiaraite-(VIMgIVAl)”?, pyroxene (diopside), amphibole (tremolite), mica (kinoshitalite), serpentine metasomatized metacarbonate Ni, As, Mo, Ba
FKM-239 Raidlgraben, near Werfen, Salzburg, Austria lazulite quartz veins P, Sc
FKM-240 Obsidian Cliffs, 8 km S of Mackenzie Pass, Lane Co., OR, USA osumilite, fayalite vapor phase growth in volcanic
FKM-241 Lågendalen, Near Larvik, Norway catapleiite, aegirine, nepheline nepheline syenite Zr
FKM-242 Nordmark, Sweden (suggested as from the “Kitteln ‘2’ mine”?) Mg-rich iwakiite, calcite, dolomite, norsethite, barytocalcite, orthopinakiolite [listed on dealer label but not observed; actually Fe-rich fredrikssonite], barite, adelite, apatite (As-bearing hydroxylapatite), humite group (Mn-bearing hydroxylclinohumite), mica (kinoshitalite) metamorphosed Ba-Mn metasomite Mn, B, As, Ba
FKM-243 Bald Knob, Sparta, Alleghany Co., NC, USA linnaeite, cobaltite, spinel group (galaxite, jacobsite), rhodochrosite, kutnohorite, apatite (fluorapatite), humite group (alleghanyite, manganhumite), serpentine (kellyite), “Ca-stilpnomelane” Mn metasomatite Mn, Co, As
FKM-244 Gem mine, San Benito Co., CA, USA benitoite, neptunite, natrolite metasomatic veins in serpentinite Ba, Ti, Mn
FKM-245 Salem Neck, Essex Co., MA, USA nepheline, biotite nepheline syenite
FKM-246 Rapid Creek, Dawson mining district, Yukon, Canada lazulite, wardite, augelite metasomatized sedimentary phosphorite P
FKM-247 Iodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan roedderite vapor phase growth in volcanic
FKM-248 Portland Point, Tompkins Co., NY, USA phlogopite, olivine mica peridotite
FKM-249 near Red Hill, Carroll Co., NH, USA nepheline, sodalite, aegirine nepheline sodalite syenite Cl
FKM-250 Murfreesboro, Pike Co., AR, USA phlogopite, cpx, olivine mica augite peridotite
FKM-251 Mont Saint-Gregoire (Mont Johnson), Québec, Canada pyrrhotite, pyrite, spinel group (magnetite), ilmenite, baddeleyite, zirconolite, apatite (fluorapatite), Zr-bearing titanite, pyroxene (augite), amphibole (ferri-kaersutite), mica (Ti+Fe3+-rich biotite), feldspar (K-spar [orthoclase], plagioclase [“andesine”/”oligoclase”]), nepheline, zeolite (analcime, gismondine?) essexite (nepheline monzodiorite) Ti, Zr
FKM-252 reportedly Kiev, Ukraine boracite [listed on dealer label but not observed], chromite, forsterite, serpentine chromatite Cr
FKM-253 Dara-i-Pioz, Tajikistan stillwellite-(Ce), quartz, aegirine, microcline alkali granite B, REE, Cs
K-65 Kaltes Tal, Germany spinel group (spinel), ilmenite, olivine (forsterite), mica (biotite [Ti-rich phlogopite]) mica peridotite Ti